Osteoporosis, where bone loses its strength and become porous is classified into four types. The first two types – primary and secondary are the major forms that together contribute to almost all cases and the other two types are rarely observed. It is referred as primary when it happens due to an unknown mechanism or aging as the factor responsible for identified loss of bone structure.
When the bone loss happens due to an existing ailment or condition, like prolonged use of specific medications, alcohol abuse or smoking, is referred as secondary osteoporosis. Both these forms are treatable and may occur both in women and men.
Different types of osteoporosis
4 Different Types Of Osteoporosis
The most common type is the primary osteoporosis and is observed more commonly in women, particularly women approaching menopause or postmenopausal women. The peak of bone density is achieved by an individual at the age of 30. Then the bone loss rate gradually increases, and the rate of rebuilding of bones decreases. The rate of occurrence of osteoporosis depends on bone thickness and health of bones in the earlier years of lives, physical activity and the regular diet.
In women, the end of menstruation cycles result in a much accelerated bone loss as the estrogen levels get dropped down extensively. Moreover, estrogen production gets slow down between 45 to 55 years of age. In men too, the gradual thinning of bones occurs, around the age of 45 to 50 years, when the testosterone production gets slow down. But, usually osteoporosis gets developed and show effects after the age of 60 or more.
Women are more harmed as compared to men and observe osteoporosis at an earlier age as they have lower bone mass as compared to men. Primary osteoporosis is further categorized as Postmenopausal type I and postmenopausal Type II. Type I osteoporosis is characterized by major loss of trabecular bone (centre bone portion) and known as early postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Type II osteoporosis patients tend to lose both cortical (outer bone layers) and trabecular bones and usually because of degeneration process of aging. The decrease of estrogen enhances osteoporosis and more the years after menopause, the higher chances of developing osteoporosis.
It shows similar symptoms as that of primary osteoporosis, but occurrence is the result of some medical conditions like leukemia, hyperthyroidism or hyperparathyroidism. Certain medications on continual use result in breakdown of bones like high dosage of inhaled corticosteroids, aromatase inhibitors (for breast cancer) or high dose of thyroid replacement.
It is based on such secondary factors and hence, it can develop at any age. Around 50% of men suffer from secondary osteoporosis as use of chronic corticosteroid is majorly observed in patients of inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, SLE and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
A rare form of osteoporosis that occurs from birth itself is known as Osteogenesis imperfecta. The disease leads to breakage of bones without any apparent reason, resulting in frequent fractures in the child.
Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis
This form of osteoporosis is also a rare occurrence and observed in children from 8 to 14 years of age, when there is supposed to be a rapid bone development and growth. The children suffering from idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis show only little bone growth and have an increased likelihood of bone fractures.