The treatment of Arthritis concentrates on symptoms relief and in improving the joint functioning. Various treatments or treatment combinations are tried usually before the individual establishes something that anything is good for him/her. The drugs that are used for treating Arthritis differ.
List of Medications for Treating Arthritis
Analgesics are medications of Arthritis that aid in reducing the pain and will not show any effect on the swelling. These medications in combination with each other bring relief to the pain. This group of drugs include aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), ultram, ryzolt, Percocet, oxycontin, and hydrocodone.
The functioning of this analgesic is not known exactly. But, it is found to increase the pain threshold so that large amount of pain has to be created before it is felt by the person. The heat regulating center of the brain is affected by the analgesics and the fever is reduced by its activity. The brain center is informed about lowering the temperature of the body when the temperature is high. This drug was approved by FDA in the year 1951.
Hydrocodone, Oxycontin and Percocet
These drugs are strong narcotic pain killers and are used as cough suppressants. The generic name of this drug is known as oxycodone. Their main action is not understood but, they are known to be associated with the stimulation of opioid receptors of the brain.
Oxycontin will not be able to discard the pain entirely but reduces the pain by enhancing the toleration capacity of the person. Oxycontin also causes respiratory depression and sedation. This drug was approved by FDA in the year 1976.
Biological Response Modifiers
The elements that are helpful in altering the response of the body towards the disease and infection belong to this category. These constituents are normally produced by the body naturally. The scientists can generate these compounds in large quantities in the laboratory and use them in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and various other diseases. Some of the biological response modifiers are explained under.
This is a drug that is administered in the form of injections used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and Ankylosing spondylitis. Enbrel functions by inhibiting the Tumor necrosis factor alpha. TNF alpha protein is produced by the body when it is injured and when the inflammation develops.
The TNF alpha factor is known to promote inflammation and its associated symptoms and fever in several conditions like ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Enbrel attaches to the TNF protein and removes it from the blood and joints and hence not allowing the TNF protein to enhance the inflammation, pain and fever.
Anakinra or Kineret
Anakinra is an injection that is synthetically made. It functions as interleukin-1 receptor antagonist that can inhibit the functions of interleukin-1 factor of the humans. The protein interleukin-1 is released by many cells in the body and is found to be present in large quantities in the joints that are swollen due to arthritis. The IL-1 will be attracted by the receptors that are present in the cells surrounding the inflamed joints.
This protein will enhance the inflammation by activating the cells responsible for the process and by releasing certain enzymes. These enzymes are known to be beneficial to damage the cartilage and bone as well as will enhance the swelling and pain in the joints. Anakinra is the medication that prevent the functioning of IL-1 on the receptor and reducing the inflammation and pain causing effects of IL-1.
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs
This group of medications include first line and second line medications. The NSAIDs and corticosteroids come under the first line drugs which are known to bring relief to the pain and inflammation but, not prevent the destruction of the joint. If the Arthritis patient is facing the problem of damage to the joints or deformity to the joint, then he/she has to choose second line medications other than NSAIDs or corticosteroids.
The second line medication is used for longer duration in various different dosages. Hydroxychloroquine is the medication classified under this category that is used for long durations in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is the drug that is administered orally and is used for treating rheumatoid arthritis when used in combination with other drugs like anti-inflammatory medications. This drug is also used in the treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s colitis and ulcerative colitis.
This drug is comprised of salicylate and sulfa compounds. Gold Salts like gold thiomalate and gold thioglucose were found to be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis since few years. These salts are administered in the form of injections.
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia are different and differ for various patients. Hence, the treatment options for each of the individual will become effective when medications are accompanied with stress reduction, patient medications, and regular exercise. The treatment outcome is known to be dependent on the customized treatment plan. Some of these medications include Celexa, Luvox, Paxil, Zoloft, and Norpramin and so on.
This drug is also called as citalopram. Citalopram is the antidepressant medication which can influence the neurotransmitters present in the brain. These chemicals are helpful in communicating between the nerves. It is observed that depression results from the discrepancy in the neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters are released and manufactured by nerves and they form a part of the brain communication system. Citalopram functions by avoiding the uptake of serotonin by the nerve cells after it is released. As the released neurotransmitters have to be removed periodically and the uptake of these chemicals has to be done inevitably, the citalopram functioning will decrease the serotonin uptake. The free serotonin will remain in the brain to trigger the nerve cells.
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Glucocorticoids are the drugs that constitute the cortisone and other related medications. Glucocorticoid is the hormone that normally affects the carbohydrate metabolism to a large extent and affects fats and proteins to a less extent. Glucocorticoids are synthesized in the outer part of the adrenal gland and are chemically classified as steroids.
Corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory features and are used for treating many conditions like colitis, arthritis, bronchitis, asthma, skin rashes and allergic problems of eyes and nose. There are several forms of corticosteroids available in the market such as topical creams, oral tablets, liquids, capsules, gels, eye drops, inhalers, intravenous and injectable solutions.
Three major stages of treatment exist in Gout medication therapy. The first step involves using Tylenol like pain killers. In the second stage, anti-inflammatory agents like NSAIDs and corticosteroids are used for reducing the inflammation. The third stage deals with the drugs that are responsible for handling the underlying metabolic disturbances that might lead to high uric acid content in the blood. The high uric acid levels in the blood will cause kidney stones and gout attack.
These are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are commonly used for the inflammation due to arthritis. Some of the NSAIDs are indomethacin, aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen etc.
This drug has several brand names like Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, and Aleve. These drugs are used in the management of fever, inflammation and pain. The prostaglandin levels that are responsible for enhancing the pain and inflammation are reduced with the help of these drugs. The enzyme that synthesizes prostaglandins like cyclooxygenase is known to be blocked by naproxen and hence the prostaglandin levels are decreased.